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The DIY Plasma Gun II is an improved version of a compact, portable, spark gap Tesla coil which can create jets of high voltage plasma and even doubles as a flame thrower! This updated version of our hand held Tesla Coil has been optimized for improved efficiency and gives a larger output than the previous one. It is also now even easier to build! You can find the old version on the original Plasma Gun page. We decided to stick to a spark gap type Tesla Coil for this plasma gun as it is considerably easier to build and more reliable than solid state controllers.

We will however produce a solid state version in future. This page should show you all you need to know about how to make a plasma gun like the one shown here. Hopefully it will also teach you the science behind it so that you will know how it works. Remember that this is a dangerous high voltage project and should not be attempted by inexperienced people. This plasma gun is essentially a small battery powered spark gap Tesla coil.

Its inteded purpous is more for education, than an actual function. We hope that is is a fun and interesting project and that you will learn something from it.

If you make your own plasma gun, please post a picture below! The plasma is made by ionizing air around the output terminal of the Tesla coil. The high frequency, high voltage electricity is able to form streams of plasma that can be made to spread out, or be directed forward along a flame or stream of gas. When the jet of plasma is directed at a surface such as a plastic bottle, subtle changes will occur in the structure of the material on a very thin surface layer.

Typically these changes will make the surface more porous, or easier to print onto. Warning: This project involves dangerous high voltage electricity!

Meet the renegades building a nuclear fusion reactor in your neighbourhood

High Voltage Inverter For converting the low battery voltage into high voltage for charging the primary capacitor. This part of the plasma gun does the main power conversion by pulsing a high voltage ignition coil. Pulsing the spark coil will step up the voltage from the battery to about 20kV which is used to charge the main capacitor. This capacitor is later discharged into the primary coil of a Tesla Coil to further increase the voltage. This circuit was mounted in the back end of a cordless drill casing so that the control pots and LEDs were accesable from the back.

At the side of the drill casing a small switch was mounted that could be used to switch the circuit on and off. This serves as a safety to power down the plasma gun when not in use. The power to the ignition coil was fed directly from the drill battery via the original trigger switch, into the L- connector on the OCXI. By connecting like this, the control circuit and its cooling fan stays active between times when the plasma gun is fired.

It is neccesary to add a high voltage diode to the output of the ignition coil so that a capacitor can be charged. For this, the rubber end of the ignition coil was removed, and the diode connected to the spring inside the tip. The tip was then filled with epoxy resin so that the high voltage would not flash over the body of the diode.

This also helps to cool the diode by absorbing heat from it. The cathode wire is left protruding from the resin so that it can be connected to a small inductor.But within one of these anonymous warehouses, a company is seeking to recreate and harness the power of the Sun. Tokamak Energy is building a device that looks like a steampunk submersible from a Jules Verne novel. Made from gleaming steel, it has glass-covered ports through which you can peer into the interior. It will host a hydrogen plasma 10 times hotter than the centre of the Sun, with the aim of achieving nuclear fusion.

Tokamak Energy, with around 50 employees, is one of several small companies worldwide that believes the answer to the long-standing problem of how to harness nuclear fusion may come from fleet-footed private start-ups, rather than the gigantic international projects that have been trying to crack it for decades.

70 Cool Welding Project Ideas for Beginners, Hobbyist, or Making Money

As the global population soars, world energy consumption is expected to grow by around 30 per cent by All current nuclear power plants use the process of nuclear fission: the release of energy when heavy radioactive elements such as uranium decay into other elements. With nuclear fusion, on the other hand, the energy comes not from the splitting of heavy atoms, but by the merging fusion of light elements such as hydrogen to make heavier ones.

Fission, however, has its problems. In principle, nuclear fusion offers a better alternative. The products in this case are not radioactive, so there is little hazardous waste. And the energy release in fusion can be greater, as illustrated in thermonuclear hydrogen bombs where the process is unleashed in an uncontrolled outburst.

But whereas fission happens naturally in stuff like uranium that can be dug from the Earth, fusion is harder to trigger — even though it powers the stars. An atom of hydrogen has one proton and no neutrons in its nucleus. One of these is called deuterium, which has a neutron in its nucleus as well as the proton, and tritium, which has two neutrons and a proton.

But tritium decays radioactively, and needs to be produced in situ to fuel a fusion reactor. Such conditions exist in the Sun, and can be created artificially in experimental fusion reactors.

The leading candidate for a fusion device is the so-called tokamak, first developed in the Soviet Union in the s the word is a Russian acronym. Fact check Plasma is the fourth state of matter, after solid, liquid and gas. It is electrically charged and can be generated by either heating a gas or subjecting it to a strong electromagnetic field. The conventional view is that tokamaks have to be huge to keep the plasma hot enough for long enough, but Costley argued that small tokamaks can operate at higher plasma densities, making them more efficient without needing to get larger.

The idea caused much debate and controversy in the fusion community, but Tokamak is counting on smaller reactors being the key to success. The fuel ingredients are continually fed into the plasma as fusion proceeds.

But the crucial innovation, according to the Tokamak team, is the powerful magnets used to generate the fields that confine the plasma. These materials, discovered in the s, can superconduct at higher temperatures than ordinary superconductors and so can be relatively easily cooled using liquid nitrogen.

Crucially, they can also carry bigger currents and so generate stronger magnetic fields. If HTSs became a central component of fusion reactors, they would surely be mass-produced, making them cheaper. Tokamak Energy also places its faith in an unusual tokamak shape: spheres, rather than the usual cylindrical devices favoured by the bigger projects such as ITER and JET. But Warrick adds that they have drawbacks too, especially the challenges of removing the tremendous amount of heat from the reactor, because it is more intensely concentrated in the compact design.Your safety is our top priority!

See what to expect the first time you donate plasma. First-time donor? See what is important about your second visit. Find out how your plasma is used to make life-saving medicines. Drink 6 to 8 cups of water or juice the day before and day of your donation. Eat a protein-rich, iron-rich meal no more than 3 hours before donating. They can affect blood tests and make your plasma milky, which might prevent you from donating.

Wear comfortable clothes, with sleeves that can be pushed up to your shoulder. Bring something to pass the time. Take advantage of free wi-fi at all of our donation centers with a smartphone or tablet, or bring music with headphones, of coursea book, or a magazine.

Continue to drink plenty of water. Continue to eat foods rich in protein and iron. Wait 2 days to donate plasma again. So if you donated Monday, you can donate again Wednesday. See what is important about your second visit Find out how your plasma is used to make life-saving medicines.

When you become a regular plasma donor, you should eat meals with meat, beans, and other sources of protein, and eat foods high in iron or take iron supplements if recommended by your doctor. You can always donate plasma another day when you feel better. To the top. Share your story What has plasma made possible in your life? Tell us. Refer a friend Know someone interested in donating plasma? Connect with us Find more news, events, and donor tips. Close Search for what you're looking for here.

View all donation centers.Gone are the days when welding was considered to be something restricted to only professionals in the welding circle. Apart from being a good source of income, welding can be a lot of fun to hobbyist and to those who want to repair or build something new for fun and recreation in their homes, gardens or farms. It also allows you to add value to your house by using it to make some minor repairs without having to hire a specialized repair professional.

The below listed 70 Cool Welding Project Ideas will help increase your knowledge and understanding of welding fundamentals and techniques.

Having said enough, let us bring you our collection of the 70 welding projects ideas that perhaps, may help you accomplish your goals. This is actually one of those useful items in every welding shop. And the best thing about it is that it is easy to make and there are no complicated parts to weld. I believe you must have already seen one in the welding workshop.

Even though making a shop stool is among the easy Welding Projects, it is also important to know the major things you need to get started. Bell is also one of those easy Welding Projects you will want to try. All you need is a small cylinder, some waste steel and nothing more.

Very simple requirements right, why not give it a try. Metal carts are highly useful yet easy to make. They can be used to move heavy materials around the garage. If you own a welding workshop, you know how useful a Metal cart can be. Apart from using it to move objects around the workshop, it can also be used to transport your welding machine around using its wheels.

All you need to get are: Metal Strips For the baseAngle iron brackets to be used for the sides four casters and its supports, Cold-rolled steel rods for the handlefour cartwheels and you are ready to weld.

A lot of people these days like keeping pets at home for different purposes such as cats or dog either for fun or recreational purposes. If you have one, I know you must have understood how important it is to have a pet gate. Weld together the metal tubing to create half inch squares. Then use the remaining metal tubing to weld its border to form a rectangular shape.

You need to cut an opening on your door of the same size as the pet gate. Now attach it to the bottom half of your door using the metal hinges. Your pet can now easily punch the pet gate and pass. Those who own a workshop know of what importance it is to have a tool rack. A tool rack is used to keep your things organized. The good thing about making the tool rack yourself is that you can customize it to the specifications of your choice.

You can create a standing rack or a wall hanging rack. You need angle brackets to make a frame for the rack. Then create partitions in the middle. Make sure the storage space is big enough to store the equipment you have. You can make use of hooks or pipes to hang your tools and steel metal sheets.A dense plasma focus DPF is a type of plasma generating system originally developed as a fusion power device starting in the early s. The system demonstrated scaling laws that suggested it would not be useful in the commercial power role, and since the s it has been used primarily as a fusion teaching system, and as a source of neutrons and X-rays.

The original concept was developed in by N. Filippov, who noticed the effect while working on early pinch machines in the USSR. A different version of the same basic concept was independently discovered in the US by J. Mather in the early s. This version saw some development in the s, and variations continue to be developed. The basic design derives from the z-pinch concept. Both the DPF and pinch use large electrical currents run through a gas to cause it to ionize into a plasma and then pinch down on itself to increase the density and temperature of the plasma.

The DPF differs largely in form; most devices use two concentric cylinders and form the pinch at the end of the central cylinder. In contrast, z-pinch systems generally use a single cylinder, sometimes a torus, and pinch the plasma into the center. The plasma focus is similar to the high-intensity plasma gun device HIPGD or just plasma gunwhich ejects plasma in the form of a plasmoid, without pinching it. A comprehensive review of the dense plasma focus and its diverse applications has been made by Krishnan in Pinch-based devices are the earliest systems to be seriously developed for fusion research, starting with very small machines built in London in These normally took one of two forms; linear pinch machines are straight tubes with electrodes at both ends to apply the current into the plasma, whereas toroidal pinch machines are donut-shaped machines with large magnets wrapped around them that supply the current via magnetic induction.

In both types of machines, a large burst of current is applied to a dilute gas inside the tube. This current initially ionizes the gas into a plasma. Once the ionization is complete, which occurs in microseconds, the plasma begins to conduct a current.

how to build a small plasma focus

Due to the Lorentz forcethis current creates a magnetic field that causes the plasma to "pinch" itself down into a filament, similar to a lightning bolt. This process increases the density of the plasma very rapidly, causing its temperature to increase. Early devices quickly demonstrated a problem with the stability of this process. As the current began to flow in the plasma, magnetic effects known as the "sausage" and "kink" appeared that caused the plasma to become unstable and eventually hit the sides of the container.

When this occurred, the hot plasma would cause atoms of the metal or glass to spall off and enter the fuel, rapidly cooling the plasma. Unless the plasma could be made stable, this loss process would make fusion impossible. In the mids, two possible solutions appeared.

In the fast-pinch concept, a linear device would undergo the pinch so quickly that the plasma as a whole would not move, instead only the outermost layer would begin to pinch, creating a shock wave that would continue the process after the current was removed.This is my second Instructable and english is not my mother tongue, so I ask you guys some patience for the possible formal inaccuracies.

I decided to enter this Instructable in the Teach It! I belive that it fits that contest because by this Instructable you are going to learn how to deal with the fourth state of matter: PLASMA, that i think is not just trivial stuff.

Indirectly, you will also learn a bit of glass working. Disclaimer: if you are going to reproduce this Instructable, be aware of the risks it concerns: deadly high voltage current will be used and the final product may be able to produce a little amount of x-rays.

I'm not responsable for any damage to property or persons, due to the imitation of this tutorial. Even If the aim of this Instructables is not to make an advanced lesson about the plasma phisics I'm not able to do itbut only to teach you how to produce it, it may be a good thing to have a vague idea of what it is.

You may be accustomed to the first three states of matter: solid, liquid and gas. But there is a less known state called plasma, that ironically, is the most abundant form of matter in the Universe. Thats because most stars are in a plasma state.

how to build a small plasma focus

Technically, plasma is a ionized gas that consists of a set of electrons and ions but globally neutral. A neutral gas is dielectric this means it can't conduct electricity but if it is subjected to an sufficiently strong electric field, at a sufficiently low pressure, it ionizes.

Canoptek Doomstalker vs Doomsday Ark - Comparison + Math Hammer

It means that its particles lose their natural electronic balance, and starts to conduct electricity. Lightning is an example of plasma visible on earth. And since plasma is extremely hot in a lightning it can reach temperatures of 28, kelvins is often used in industrial cutting. In practice, all this results into a charming glow of light with a color ranging from purple to blue.

The title of this step may have crushed your expectations: " Will I need some special equipment? You said it would be easy! To run the device you will also need:. Mine is just a simple ZVS circuit, driving a flyback transformer.

If you don't know what I'm talking about, you should check this great Instructables that I followed to build my generator:. If you have it, you can even use a neon sign transformer. Vacuum pumps are expensive, thats why I'm using an old compressor form a refrigerator. I just attached a thick pvc tubing to the suction end. It works really well. We are going to build a cilindric vacuum chamber with two electrodes. After the vacuum making, rarefied air will remain in the chamber.

By creating a strong electric potential difference between the two electrodes, the gases inside will pass at the sate of plasma. This will make the glass piercing passage more easy. Due to the high temperature it will reach, it may be flaking and smudge the vacuum chamber.

Now there is the fun part: you have to inglobate the anode in the back of the test tube, leaving an uncovered part of the bolt to attach the generator. It may sound difficult, but I found out that glass-working isn't that bad. You will have to:. It will be ready when the flame will turn orange from blue, ad the glass will glow orange as well.

Using multiple torches will make everything more easy. The result of the previous step may be imperfect.If you wish to get in touch with us please send a message to: info (at) esportbets. Whatever happens, the game will be close, meaning giving the Geordies a slight head start may be the ideal way to kick off this weekends accumulator. The hosts have only lost once at the Recreation Ground in any competition in 2017, which was 3-24 to Wasps in round 17 of Aviva Premiership Rugby in March. There is intrigue absolutely everywhere.

Saracens were also very impressive, crushing Northampton 55-24 at Twickenham last Saturday. Saracens have lost their two most recent away games, at Wasps in round 22 and at Exeter in the semi-final, but have not lost three in a row on their travels in the Premiership Rugby since March 2010. Who are you backing this weekend. RUCK are in da house. We use our own and third party cookies to improve our services. By continuing to browse this site you are consenting to this.

Find out more about our cookie policy. The game starts at 8 p. The Kings are hoping for a better outcome after their 101-95 loss to the Cleveland Cavaliers in their last matchup. Zach Randolph led Sacramento in scoring with 18 points on 8-for-20 shooting. The last time the Pelicans played, they defeated the Denver Nuggets, 123-114. The Pelicans had a free throw rate of 0. DeMarcus Cousins was the top scorer from either team with 40 points on 12-for-25 shooting.

The sweet-shooting offense of New Orleans will go head-to-head against the porous defense of Sacramento. The Pelicans currently rank fifth in effective field goal percentage (0. The Pelicans should have the edge on that end of the court. Sacramento heads into the game with records of 7-17 straight up (SU) and 10-11-3 against the spread (ATS).

Meanwhile, New Orleans owns records of 13-12 SU and 14-11 ATS. Vegas tends to place the total low when the Pelicans are involved, as 56. Both teams have had a player take their game to the next level over their last five games.

how to build a small plasma focus

This is the second game of the season between these two teams. In the first, Cousins scored a game-high 41 points and the Pelicans beat the Kings 114-106, covering as 1-point underdogs.

He also recorded 23 rebounds and six assists. The game finished with a total of 220 points, which was 16 points above the projected point total of 204 points. New Orleans had a much better offensive rebounding percentage (25. New Orleans ranks second in assists per game (26. The Pelicans rank 12th in three pointers attempted per game (30. Sacramento ranks third in points off turnovers allowed per game (15.